The key is to summarize for the reader what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. What are the functions of an abstract? The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript. A Practical Guide for Health Researchers. You can follow the same strategy to write a structured abstract; just introduce headings based on the journal guidelines. Making it explicit saves everybody time and effort and, as I said, keeps the abstract self-contained.
WhiteSmoke software can use its writing features to check your and suggest more precise words. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. If the investigation extends or replicates previous research, it must be recorded in the abstract, with a brief citation of the author initials and family name and year. Why should your readers care? The Sections of the Paper Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: , , , , , , , , and , which parallel the experimental process. So there may be the confusion. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a summary of the whole thesis or report.
In this synoptic view, they tie up loose ends and strengthen their arguments where there has been criticism. Include the date s of the study e. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? For instance, if you are replicating a previous study, then you may have to include a cite. Did you meet your objectives? For example, is it empirical or theoretical? Look for places where you can combine sentences in ways that shorten the total length. Coherent and readable: Write clearly. Some suggestions for preparing an abstract After finishing the whole content, the author should re-read the article and note down salient points, including the nature of the problems, objectives, methods, results, conclusions and suggestions for further investigation.
What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question s you are posing? Same advice works for scientific papers — the readers are the peer reviewers, and eventually others in your field interested in your research, so again they know the background work, but want to know specifically what topic your paper covers. Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper. If it does not, then you can save time by just reading the abstract and moving on to more appropriate resources. Capitalize the word, but do not bold, italicize or underline it, and do not use quotation marks. Key words or phrases are used by Internet search engines to locate the paper. Is your claim based on a specific journal? A research abstract concisely states the major elements of a research project.
Use the English grammar checker while writing the draft and the writing enhancement feature that serves as a vocabulary check. If requested, place a list of keywords on your abstract page on the line immediately following the actual text of your abstract. Your abstract will contain elements such as an introduction, a few sentences that describe the main points and a conclusion. The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. How to write an Abstract for a Conference Paper An Abstract is a short document that is intended to capture the interest of a potential reader of your paper. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? The Abstract should then briefly describe the work to be discussed in your paper and also give a concise summary of the findings. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper.
Get feedback on the draft from colleagues, supervisors, teachers, etc. Know which type of abstract you need to write. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to the question. Why should other people care? Adding abstracts, inserting pictures, and others should never let you lose focus of your main points. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly.
Note the advice re mathematics above. These instructions often include details on what the sections of an abstract should contain. Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. You should start the main portion of the text in the next line. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible. The abstract exists to summarize your paper, so including information in the abstract not used in the paper is a little like false advertising. Accurate: An abstract should reflect correctly the objectives and contents of the article.
It can be a useful tool in determining if the selected article fits in with your research topic. Don't go into detail about materials unless they were critical to your success. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. This will help you determine whether the keywords in your research paper are appropriate for the topic of your article. Whereas the can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn.
Include information on any research methods you employed. When do you write — or refrain from writing — an abstract? The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data from your study that should have been presented earlier. A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. But, even with the abstract's brief length, don't be afraid to reinforce a key point by stating it in more than one way or referring to it in more than one section. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper beyond title skimming , they will likely get the key results and conclusions.