The water was discharged by a huge drain with corbelled roof more than 6 ft in depth. Long-distance sea trade over bodies of water—such as the Arabian Sea, Red Sea and the Persian Gulf—may have become feasible with the development of plank watercraft that were each equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. Excavations at Lothal reveals the existence of a dock supporting the activities of trade in that period. Although quite a bit of archaeological data has been collected, we know almost nothing about the history of this massive civilization, because we haven't deciphered the language yet. As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and the recently partially excavated , this urban plan included the world's first known urban systems: see.
Trade also existed with Northern Afghanistan from where the Harappans bought the famous blue gemstones,' Lapiz Lazuli'. Archaeologists have discovered the lamp posts at intervals. In 2010, heavy floods hit in India and damaged the archaeological site of , where ancient copper smelting furnaces were found dating back almost 5,000 years. From the ruins unearthed at Mahenjodaro and Harappa it is evident that the females used hairs pins, face-paints and mirror of bronze. Indus people were the first to build planned cities with scientific drainage system. New Delhi India : Oxford University Press and India Book House. The largest Late Harappan sites are Kudwala in , in , and in , which can be considered as urban, but they are smaller and few in number compared with the Mature Harappan cities.
Geological Society of America Special Papers. The priests derived their impressive control over city and town dwellers from their role as the intermediaries between the Harappan populace and a number of gods and goddesses, whose provision of fertility was of paramount concern. Controlled building on such a massive scale would have required an autocratic government with the capacity to organize and supervise the daily tasks of large numbers of laborers. Late Harappan A sculpture of a bronze chariot, 45 cm long and 16 cm wide, yoked to two oxen, driven by a man 16 cm high standing in it; and three other bronze sculptures. In the Shang-Zhou era they also pioneered key manufacturing processes such as sericulture - the manufacture of silk cloth through the domestication of silkworms.
This must have been the principles upon which the present day Hinduism has prescribed as its principles. As the monsoons kept shifting south, the floods grew too erratic for sustainable agricultural activities. Forming perfect right angles, intersection of streets took place at junctions. There are some circular with geometric designs, but lacking the which characterised the mature phase of the civilisation. The layout of the houses was strikingly uniform in that each consisted of a courtyard surrounded by rooms for sleeping, cooking, and, in the larger homes, receiving visitors.
That the many sites associated with the Harappan complex were part of one civilization has been established due to excavations of layer after layer of cities and towns rebuilt in the same way, with the same proportions, at the same locations. Harappan tanks or public bathing ponds remain a centralefeature of Indian cities, particularly in the south. There is evidence of severe flooding at Mohenjo-daro and other sites. In Harappa there are a series of brick platforms which formed the base for two rows of 6 granaries each. One seal from Mohenjo-daro shows a half-human, half-buffalo monster attacking a tiger. Which is really too bad for us—decipherment would somewhat easier if we know or could guess that the glyphs represent something that might be shipped in a jar Harappans grew , , and , among other things or that part of the glyphs might be numbers or place names. Harappans also engaged in shellworking, and shells used in their crafts have origins from as far away as the coast of modern-day Oman.
The Great Cities Though hundreds of miles apart, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were remarkably similar in layout and construction. There are 2,600 known Indus sites, from enormous urban cities like and to small villages like Nausharo. Shang irrigation and dike systems and millet and wheat cultivation provided the basis upon which subsequent dynasties innovated and expanded. The ancient Indus systems of sewage and drainage developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. Despite these overseas contacts, Harappan peoples appear to have been intensely conservative and highly resistant to innovations introduced from the outside. According to John Marshall the civilisation flourished during the period from 3250 B.
Shang and Zhou walled towns and villages surrounded with stamped earth have persisted as the predominant patterns of settlement throughout Chinese history. In 1872—75, Cunningham published the first Harappan with an erroneous identification as letters. This idea has been established owing to the discovery of many urns containing human bones and ashes. The citadel at Mohenjo-daro included a very large building that may have been a palace. It doesn't appear to mention the. The discovery of the toys like whistles rattles and dolls refers to the fact that the children were fond of toys. Thus Indus people had a perfect underground drainage system.
Another theory posits that there was no single ruler, but rather a number of leaders representing each of the urban centers, including Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and other communities. Britishers laid down 93 miles of railway track with 4000-year-old Indus Valley bricks During the British Rule in India, British engineers were constructing the railway track from Karachi to Lahore. . Brick laid channels flowed through every street. A weight chart was created much similar to an once, the chart consisted of: 0. In sharp contrast to this civilisation's contemporaries, and , no large monumental structures were built. Today, the family is concentrated mostly in and northern and eastern , but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest of India and Pakistan the , which lends credence to the theory.