We will also try to demonstrate how they have evolved to reflect the changing needs of organizations and society as a whole. His ideas on management have been referred as the Administrative Management Theory, which later evolved into the Management Process School. Employees are viewed as tools rather than resources for contributing to management objectives. It assesses the impact of environmental factors on the organisation and vice versa and arrives at the best solution to the problem in the prevailing situation. In his mind, history was essentially the recordings of a mass conflict that has existed for ages. The problem was that the radar system did not perform well at field sites as it performed at the testing stations.
As each manager had his own way of viewing the organisation, some emphasised on production and others on human relations. Peter Senge is one of the best-known experts on learning organizations. He is credited with developing the acceptance theory of management, which emphasizes the willingness of employees to accept that managers have legitimate authority to act. He is a prolific writer and haspublished several books and articles on the management practices. Fayol goes beyond shop labour to apply the principles to all kinds of work, managerial as well as technical.
Select a course of action. Creativity is the core of a research organization. What is valid and goodin a particular situation need not be so in some other situation. Open system that has an environment, that is, it possesses systems with which it relates, exchanges and communicates. Instead, there are some different functionalist thinkers associated with this outlook including , James Rowland Angell, and Harvey Carr. Would you be able to discern anything meaningful from them? This school attempts to analyse intellectually the nature, purpose, structure and the underlying process of each of the functions of management. He introduced the Administrative Management Theory.
The management process, or classical, school traces its ancestry to Fayol. These are the structural functions of a manager. It looks upon management as a social system i. This approach has been called the human relations, or behavioral science approach. Communication is thus quite important. Commanding: To direct and guide the workers to perform their duties well.
Their work also led to the emergence of a form of psychotherapy widely practiced by modern psychologists. Psychoanalysis Mention the word psychology, and few persons would fail to recall Sigmund Freud. Gestalt Psychology According to Gestalt psychologists, the human mind works by interpreting data through various laws, rules or organizing principles, turning partial information into a whole. Inspite of this fact management has established itself as an independent discipline. Conclusion In the few years since psychology emerged as a distinct science, it has grown and changed in innumerable ways. This new thinking in management started with the development of need hierarchy by Abraham Maslow in 1940, followed by the works of Frederick Herzberg, Douglas Mcgregor and Kemis Likert. .
It considers organisation as a group of individuals and identifies the reasons why individuals join groups and factors that influence the group behaviour. Many of the tenets of scientific management are still valid today. At this stage, it is useful to reiterate the distinctive features of a research organization. Fourth, the aim of all managers is the same — to create surplus. The Evolution of Management Thought. The focus was on industrial production.
The objectives may be organizational or individual. Lastly, he developed an incentive system that paid workers more money for meeting the new standard. It looks at management as a process of generating active interaction among individuals in an organization to influence individual or collective behaviour. The degree of centralization varies according to the dynamics of each organization. I would love to hear from you and if you get a chance, check out my weekly blog on Buildautomate.
Management theories are equally important, as they provide a comprehensive roadmap for organizations to follow in order to accomplish their goals with limited resources. The techniques used in successful cases can be used by future managers,4. Coomarsingh holds a Masters degree in Clinical Psychology and is a former lecturer at the Northern Caribbean University in Jamaica where she taught several undergraduate psychology courses, including Introduction to Psychology, Physiological Psychology and Introduction to Psychological Testing. If any of these theories interest you, you should look into them further! Can you think of any new problems that acceptance of either solution, or of both solutions, might cause? Their values and beliefs have to be respected. Some· of these computer applicationsinclude airline reservation systems, processing census reports, compiling technicalinformation into data banks, banking operations, machine processed accounting andaddressing for magazine subscriptions, total systems approaches to organizational needslogistics applications, issuance of payroll checks to large numbers of employees i. Itis viewed more as a philosophy than as a tool or technique to achieve the objectives.