He even felt something like gratitude toward the black woodsman, who, he considered, had done him a kindness. Some scholars believe that Irving simply retold a traditional tale exactly as he heard it. Their miserliness causes misery in both this life and the next. GradeSaver, 25 May 2014 Web. Both men were interested in local legends and antiquities, and Scott encouraged Irving to visit Germany to learn some of the local lore. Washington Irving believed slavery was an evil practice.
Tom sets out to find both his wife and the valuables she disappeared with, and instead finds her heart and liver tied up to a tree in her checked apron. It is specifically situational irony because the clownfish performed actions that proved the opposite case of what he intended, and of what everyone expected from him. One example of this process involved molasses. The Puritans believed the woods were filled with evil and that the Devil was behind every tree. Inside, though, there is no furniture, which proves that he is still his same stingy self. The two seal the deal. New England used indentured servants more than slaves, but it was desperate for any kind of free labor; in 1710 Massachusetts passed an act that offered a bounty to anyone bringing male servants from ages eight to twenty-five into the colony.
Irving was deeply disappointed that it received such negative press. Tom Walker is gone for good, and when trustees go to claim his assets, they find that all his possessions—including his house—have gone up in flames. So, to try to prevent that, he becomes very religious to preserve his soul. Towards the end, the author concentrates more on telling the story and informing you on what exactly is going on. The book opens with the tale of how , a pirate, buried some treasure in a swamp just outside Boston.
Romantic Characteristics In addition to its use of , Irving's story has many characteristics of writing from the Romantic time period. Greed and pure selfishness is extremely prevalent throughout the whole story. This reinforces, too, the Romantic tendency to gain wisdom from the past. The devil is imagined here to be a woodsman, who cuts down living sinners like trees to burn them in the forge and fire of hell. Puritans believed strongly in the Devil also called Satan or Old Scratch and witches, who were his principal helpers. Irving compares her to the devil early in the story.
The fueled Romantic sentiments as well. Old Scratch, red-eyed and covered with soot, is busily chopping down trees inscribed with the names of people who owe him their soul. Of course, the land jobber is complicit in his own difficulties: he also is too focused on getting and spending, the story suggests. While it's not exactly the escape he wants, it is an escape from, or maybe a punishment for, his corrupted life. It then jumps to the year 1727, when New Englander Tom Walker happened to find himself walking through this swamp. The final version, getting tricked by the devil, is the most moralistic of the three. Soon after, however, the entire family business went broke.
One day, while walking through the swamp, Tom meets the Devil. Gloomy Imagery Throughout this story,gloomy imagery is often present. Machines began to replace some workers, who were left to fend for themselves. While the elder Irving told his children that all pleasures were wicked, Washington Irving made a conscious effort to enjoy himself throughout his life. Inspired by the Grimm brothers, hosts of other writers began to scour their own countries for legends, tales, and anecdotes, which they considered relics of a purer but dying way of life. Keep in mind that he is a physical character in the story, like a person with supernatural powers. Later in life, Tom starts going to church and carrying a bible.
Faustian tales have been a hallmark of Western culture ever since, the major theme of plays, poems, operas, classical music, and even film and television productions. The land available for agriculture was not very fertile, and the conventional unscientific farming methods of the time rapidly wore out the nutrients in the soil, making the farms even less productive. The fictional narrator, Geoffrey Crayon, relates and views local legends with good-natured skepticism. There are multiple ironic situations in this story and it is pretty blunt. He tells us that, years ago, a few miles from Boston, Massachusetts, the Pirate buried a great amount of treasure.
It isn't exactly stated that he is the devil from the beginning so you are lead to draw that conclusion later. Theme: greed, evil, religion, hypocracy. Tom is more upset by the loss of the valuables than the loss of his wife; in fact, he uses the latter as consolation, and acknowledges that Old Scratch has actually done him a service by getting rid of her. He begins with a short explanation about Kidd the Pirate, who left gold buried on the banks of Boston, and how now that Kidd has died, the Devil himself guards its hiding place. It adds to the effect of the Gothicism. Determined to follow through on the deal herself, she takes all the valuables in their house as bribes for Old Scratch and sets off to find him. Through the author's physical description of them 2.
The narrative proper opens in the year 1727, when earthquakes are prevalent in New England, humbling many proud sinners to their knees. A plot is a pattern of events in a cause and effect relationship. The black man whisks Tom up like a child astride the black horse, which gallops away with him in the midst of a thunderstorm; the clerks in the counting house stare as away their employer goes. The harsh irony in this story shows the unexpected results of growing up being greedy. Tom then goes to find the devil. Northern slave traders used the rum to purchase slaves, who were subsequently sold to buyers in the southern colonies and the Indies.