The Dawes Act was amended in 1891. For example, it reduced or eliminated communally held tribal lands, limiting the ability of the indigenous population to live a traditional lifestyle, and enabled excess land to be sold for profit and development. Liberals like Schurtz, Secretary of the Interior 1877-1881, saw the Indians as 'standing in the way of the development of the country, they would form part of it and benefit by it. Finally defeated by the military force and continuing waves of encroaching settlers, the tribes negotiated agreements to resettle on reservations. This bill was designed to break up indigenous tribes, transfer communal land ownership rights to individual land ownership, transform traditional communities into independent farmers and ranchers, and integrate their populations into mainstream European American society.
Overall, the original Dawes Act reduced Native American landholdings from 138 million acres in 1887 to 78 million in 1900 and continued the trend of white settlement on what had been tribal land. The act authorized the president to confiscate and redistribute tribal lands in the American West. Section Eleven contains a provision for the Southern Ute Native Americans that they could move from their present reservation in Southwestern Colorado to a new reservation if a majority of the adult male members wanted so. Secti … on One authorizes the President to survey Native American tribal areas and divide the arable land into sections for the individual. Named after its sponsor, U. Yahoo Answers Best Answer: The Dawes Act was put in act on February 8, 1887 regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. Others who wanted to farm could not afford the seeds or equipment to make a go of it.
The use of competence opens up the categorization, making it much more subjective and thus increasing the exclusionary power of the Secretary of Interior. Individual household ownership of land and subsistence farming on the European-American model was seen as an essential step. For the figures see Richard White, op cit p115 Back to: If you have a question or comment click here. The schools tried to destroy family and cultural ties. Source: Kent Carter, Oklahoma Historical Society, and History. Indigenous families could choose to accept 160 acres land for growing crops or 320 acres for grazing, and those that accepted were automatically given United States citizenship, which subjected them to federal, state, and local laws.
About 90,000 Indians were made landless. Due to the nature of the lands allocated, the objective of boosting farming was not achieved. In the 1920s, the conducted a major study of conditions of the Native American and included data on the impacts of fractionation. It explicitly sought to destroy the social cohesion of Indian tribes and to thereby eliminate the remaining vestiges of Indian culture and society. The objectives of the Dawes Act were to abolish tribal and communal land ownership of the tribes into individual land ownership rights in order to transfer lands under Native American control to white settlers and stimulate , and thereby lift individual Native Americans out of poverty.
Allotments deemed to be suitable only for grazing were doubled in size. Exa von Alt holds a Master of Arts in history from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Even if they had wanted to become farmers, most Native Americans at the time were not equipped to live such a lifestyle. In addition, the fractionation of land and the resultant ballooning number of trust accounts quickly produced an administrative nightmare. Initially opposed by both Northerners and Southerners during the sectional tensions leading up to the Civil War, the Republican party made The Homestead Act, along with the construction of a transcontinental railroad, an integral part of its 1860 presidential platform. Individual landownership was and is contrary to most traditional Native American beliefs and practices. A display of typical arrows and bells.
What really happened was that there was so much corruption in the program that the Indians lost millions of acres of lands. While half the time was devoted to 'education', half was given over to 'industrial training'. It also funded boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into white society. Angie Debo, A History of the Indians of the United States, 1970, p 302 13. The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 allotted pieces of lands to Native Americans.
Women were no longer the caretakers of the land and they were no longer valued in the public political sphere. All of these factors coalesced to strip Native people of their lands: While Native American held 155 million acres in 1881, they held just 77 million in 1900, and a mere 48 million by 1934. This commission registered the members of the Five Civilized Tribes on what became known as the. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States. In the words of the reformer Richard Henry Pratt in 1878,: 'the Indians.
Life Under the Dawes Act The lands allotted to Native American men were typically unsuitable for farming, arid and too small for raising livestock, especially for people unaccustomed to independent agriculture. Over the past 40 years, the area of trust land has grown by approximately 80,000 acres 320 km 2 per year. Because of opposition to many of these provisions in Indian Country, often by the major European-American ranchers and industry who leased land and other private interests, most were removed while Congress was considering the bill. They were to adopt the values of the dominant society and see land as real estate to be bought and developed; they learned how to use their land effectively in order to become prosperous farmers. Depending on how the land would be used, the allotment might be 160, 80, or 40 acres, and people were allowed to choose their own allotments.