The new regents' first act was to require that all Bohemian religious bodies revert to the terms of their original foundation, thus at a stroke returning all Protestant churches to Catholic control, complete with their endowments and other property. The result was a literary period that was ruled by themes of moderation, realism and reason instead of the themes of judgment, morality and religion, like the ones imposed by the Puritans. In the field of poetry he was, in fact, the only poet worth mentioning. There was laxity everywhere in life. After Pope published his Pastorals of the four seasons in 1709, an evaluation in the Guardian praised 's pastorals above Pope's, and Pope replied with a mock praise of Philips's Pastorals that heaped scorn on them. Clarendon was a close adviser to two kings, and his intimacy with many of the key events is unrivaled.
To make this argument, he had to think radically about the origins of , the mutual obligations of subjects and rulers, and the rights of property. Another important way in which Dryden turns himself away from the conventions of the heroic tragedy, is that he does not give a happy ending to this play. Made, and dedicate to His Majesty misc. The Restoration dramatists were interested in wit and portrayal of manners rather than in the movement and progression of events. John Dryden 1631-1700 was one of the greatest prose writers of this period. Newspapers had been published since the time of the civil war; at first irregularly, and then regularly. The Restoration period was, above all, a great age of drama.
Thus mock-epic poetry is often able to form observations about contemporary culture, religion, and social issues in a funny and meaningful style. The terms of the Treaty became public in England in Oct. There were able divines in the pulpit and at the universities—Barrow, Tillotson, Stillingfleet, South, and others: scholars, like Bentley; historians, like Clarendon and Burnet; scientists, like Boyle and Newton; philosophers, like Hobbes and Locke. The poems of Milton's Youth. Johnson said that Pope was the first writer in whose case the book-seller took the place of the patron.
This debate--almost entirely an intramural debate among Whigs--pitted those who favored a domestic militia against a professional standing army with, inevitably, a significant proportion of foreign mercenaries. After George I came to the throne, he increased this pension and Handel wrote the Water Music for him in 1717. Instead of working from the journalistic , Richardson had in mind the books of improvement that were popular at the time. It was also closely involved with party struggles of Whig and Tory, and the ablest pens on either side were taken into alliance by the political leaders. John Dryden was the protagonist and writer of the Heroic tragedy. The so-called nature poets, for example, treated nature not as an ordered pastoral backdrop, but rather as a grand and sometimes even forbidding entity. Or on the beached margent of the sea To dance their ringlets to the whispering wind.
It was generally believed that the ancients had reached the acme of excellence and the modern poets could do no better than model their writings on the classics. Many poets cited the importance of learning from Greek and Roman poets, and some became famous for their translations of ancient poetry. The English writers of this period were strongly influenced by the contemporary literature of France, by the comedies of Molière, the tragedies of Corneille and Racine, and the satires, epistles, and versified essays of Boileau. Viola is a heroic woman…. Inspired by the optimism of the Enlightenment, writers began producing philosophical and religious texts.
Anne's reign was a prosperous time for Britain, as the War of the Spanish Succession 1702-1713 created new trade opportunities. What passion cannot Music raise and quell? Dryden accepted the excellent rule for his prose, and adopted the heroic couplet, as the next best thing for the greater part of this poetry. He was a dominating figure of the Restoration Age. It also demonstrates the enduring fascination of European culture with the notion that musical harmony underlay all the relationships in the universe. On one hand, the metropolitan and political writing can seem like coterie or salon work, but on the other hand, it was the literature of people deeply committed to sorting out a new type of government, new technologies and newly-vexatious challenges to philosophical and religious certainty.
In these poems, there are the stirrings of the lyric as the would see it: the celebration of the private individual's idiosyncratic, yet paradigmatic, responses to the visions of the world. Here, the Great Man is made obviously deficient by being a midget. The result was that the old Elizabethan spirit with its patriotism, its love of adventure and romance, its creative vigor, and the Puritan spirit with its moral discipline and love of liberty, became things of the past. In 1688, the birth of James's son so alarmed the country with the prospect of a new succession of Catholic monarchs that secret negotiations began to bring a new Protestant ruler from Europe to oust James. Dryden wrote a fine elegy upon him. Next to Dryden, John Bunyan 1628-1688 was the greatest prose-writer of the period.
But the Manlys and Horners of the Restoration comedy have a prosaic, cold-blooded profligacy that disgusts. Bunyan's text, though, shows us that doubt and a deep sense of personal unworthiness was often a result of the Puritans' espousal of 's doctrine of election. The changes evident in Dryden's own poetic and prose style were in many ways emblematic of those that English style generally was undergoing in the Restoration era. In imitation of the gods and goddesses in the Iliad, who intermeddle for or against the human characters, Pope introduced the Sylphs of the Rosicrucian philosophy. That was compounded by the end of the Press Restriction Act in 1693, which allowed for provincial printing presses to be established, creating a printing structure that was no longer under government control Clair 158—176. She settles upon one of Pope's personal enemies, , and the poem describes the coronation and heroic games undertaken by all of the dunces of Great Britain in celebration of Theobald's ascension. Children read the voyages to Lilliput and Brobdingnag, to the flying island of Laputa and the country of the Houyhnhnms, as they read Robinson Crusoe, as stories of wonderful adventure.
As a satirist Swift's technique was to create fictional speakers such as Gulliver, who utter sentiments that the intelligent reader should recognize as complacent, egotistical, stupid, or mad. Elizabeth Canning controversy Census proposed first census was actually held in 1801 George Ballard, Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain Jane Collier, An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting Aaron Hill d. John, 1st viscount Bolingbroke, Works Henry Fielding d. Civil List Act Royal Africa Company monopoly ended New East India Company chartered:-- This meant that there were two rival English East India companies for a time until the two companies united in 1709 : Sir Gilbert Heathcote and several other merchants had subscribed a loan of £2,000,000 to the government and had received this charter in return. The adoption of this slightly pedagogic tone was justified by the prevalent ignorance and frivolity of the age. That is an obvious parallel with the case of Peachum and Macheath. After the accession of George I and a change in ministries, leading members of the current Tory ministry would be impeached in 1715.