Let us briefly discuss these one by one. Critics like Porter and Lawler lebeled it as a theory of cognitive hedonism which proposes that individual cognitively chooses the course of action that leads to the greatest degree of pleasure or the smallest degree of pain. Along with writers such as Argyris and Likert, McGregor was one of several important humanist writers of the mid-twentieth century who argued that traditional organizational hierarchies create a state of dependence between subordinates and their managers and served as a bridge between the human relations school and a new form of organizational humanism based on Theory Y. Theory Y highlights the work satisfaction of employees and gives authority to the employees to creatively approach the tasks. In doing so, Employees are expected to exercise a large degree of internal motivation. Thus, it does not encourage innovation.
Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. When an organization is structured in a way that assumes Theory X is true, there tend to be a great number of managers and supervisors throughout the organization. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. The greatest results come from willing participation, which will tend to produce self-direction toward goals without coercion or control. The chart shows the parallel relationship between the needs in each of the theories. Maslow's hierarchy of needs consist of physiological needs lowest level , safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and highest level.
It describes two very different attitudes towards workforce motivation. People prefer to be directed. Because of his human characteristics of dislike of work, most people must be coerced, , directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate efforts towards the achievement of organizational objectives. Thus, it does not encourage innovation. It is up to you as a business owner or manager to figure out what it is that your teams need to be successful, so you can then deliver that to them on a regular basis.
If correlate it with Maslow's theory, we can say that Theory X is based on the assumption that the employees emphasize on the physiological needs and the safety needs; while Theory X is based on the assumption that the social needs, esteem needs and the self-actualization needs dominate the employees. Either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions may be appropriate in a particular situation. Herzberg conducted a widely reported motivational study on 200 accountants and engineers employed by firms in and around Western Pennsylvania. These are now discussed one by one: 1. Managers who accept theory-X assumptions have a tendency to structure, control and closely supervise their employees.
In other words, need for achievement is a behaviour directed toward competition with a standard of excellence. He believed that the assumptions underlying both schools … represented a negative view of human nature and that another approach to management based on an entirely different set of assumptions was needed. People will exercise self-direction and -control towards achieving objectives they are committed to. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization. First, of course, we need to look closely at what each of these theories says about the topic of motivation in the workplace.
They believe that most of the people are high performers in a proper work environment. Theory X assumes that employees dislike work, are not ambitious, want to avoid responsibility, dislike change, and are self-centered. Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive-even resistant-to organizational needs. Such opportunities could be provided by allowing employees to participate in decision making, by redesigning jobs to make them more challenging, or by emphasizing good work group relations, among other things. If these factors are considered inadequate by employees, then they can cause dissatisfaction with work.
The Assumptions of Theory Y Are: 1. They blame failure on the external environment. If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods. In general, Theory X style managers believe their employees are less intelligent, lazier, and work solely for a sustainable income. In this article, we are going to talk about the major differences between Theory X and Theory Y. According to Maslow, a human is motivated by the level they have not yet reached, and self-actualization cannot be met until each of the lower levels has been fulfilled.
McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. The human side of enterprise. Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Finally, it assumes that rather than valuing security above all other rewards associated with work, individuals desire rewards that satisfy their self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Employees derive the satisfaction of social, esteem and self-actualization needs within this kind of environment. Management's task was thus simply getting things done through other people. An average employee needs formal direction.
It takes into consideration, the pessimistic behaviour of an average human being, who is less ambitious and inherently lazy. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible. Valence: Valence, according to Vroom, means the value or strength one places on a particular outcome or reward. On the contrary, Theory Y assumes that: 1. The McGregor Theory X and Theory Y In 1960, developed a leadership theory McGregor Theory X and Theory Y about organization and management in which he represented two opposing perceptions about people.