वैहिद पेशावर हिंदूशाही राजा के आनंदपाल सातवा 1009 ई. Due to this Mahmood Ghaznavi is considered as a looter and plunder by the most of the non-Muslims of South Asia. He had respect for other religions. Anandpal appealed to the other Indian rajas for help. The Sultan finally succeeded in enticing the Indians to attack him. English: Persian: محمود غزنوی November 2 971 — April 30 1030 , also known as Yāmīn al-Dawlah Maḥmūd in full: Yāmīn al-Dawlah Abd al-Qāṣim Maḥmūd Ibn Sebük Tegīn , was the ruler of the from until his death.
Later years and significance After annexing the Punjab, the sultan set about to transform Ghazna into a great centre of art and. Seeing his position was hopeless, Kulchand took out his dagger, killed his young son, slew his wife and then drove it into his own body. When, in 1001, Mahmud marched on India at the head of 15,000 horse troops, Jaipal met him with 12,000 horse troops, 30,000 foot soldiers, and 300 elephants. What will you do in Ghazni? It may be the Gazaca Gázaca or Gāzaca mentioned by , although he may have conflated it and the town of or Gazaka in Iran. Mahmud was also a deeply religious man.
When Mahmud was about to die, he ordered all his hoards to be placed before his eyes. Mahmud then marched against another raja, whose name was Chand Rai. He grieved over his impending separation from his wealth but refused to give the smallest amount to charity. On December 2, 1018, advancing further into India than any Muslim ruler prior, Mahmud descended upon the fort of Mahaban on the outskirts of the city. What is there to see in Ghazni? The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. In 2015, there were 15,931 dwellings in Ghazni city. He soon realized that these rulers were exceptionally rich, and that their great wealth was being stored in their temples.
Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 1973 and The Later Ghaznavids 1977. It is estimated that Mahmud took from India jewels, gold, and silver in excess of 3 billion dinars, in addition to hundreds of thousands of slaves. In 997 he overthrew his younger brother, Ismail, who had been nominated by Subuktigin as his successor, and 2 years later Mahmud was confirmed as sultan of Ghazni by Caliph al-Kadir. In all his 17 invasions, a number of dynasties were conquered by him. In 2001, the blew the Buddha up, believing it to be idolatrous. Nearby rivers have a history of flooding and causing severe damage and death, though efforts have begun to remedy this. He also exposed the weakness of Hindu rajas, which enabled the Muslim leaders to conquer India in future.
The first period was the Age of the Caliphs of Medina, Damascus and Baghdad or the four great caliphs and their successors, the caliphs of Umayyad and Abbasid, who ruled the entire Islamic world. The caliph, in return, recognized Maḥmūd as the ruler of the lands he occupied and encouraged him in his conquests. Mahmud's Biography Mahmud was the son of a Turkish slave, who in 977 became ruler of Ghazna. Each of these cities — Mathura, Thanesar, Bhimnagar, Kannuaj, Baran Bulandshahr , Munj, Asni, Saharanpur — deserves a fitting memorial to the Hindu victims of genocide that took place a millennium ago. He thus returned to Ghazna with immense quantities of booty.
Another reason was that he wanted to transform Ghazni, his capital city, into a region of formidable power in the entire Central Asia's political scenario. Ghazni became one of the most important and beautiful cities of the Islamic world. What were raided specifically were temple towns of northern and western parts of India. Agriculture is the dominant land use at 28%. As Mahmud was superior to İsmail in every way, he first suggested dividing the country into two and ruling it together. At the end of the 10th century and in the beginning of the 11th century, Muslims were both in a crisis of thought and in an intense material conflict.
He attacked South Asia seventeen times successfully and went back to Ghazni every time with a great victory. Ghazni's strategic position, both economically and militarily, assured its revival, albeit without its dazzling former grandeur. Yet though he loved money passionately, he also spent it lavishly. His most important expedition was against the temple of Somanth in 1025. To his court came scholars like al-Biruni; Utbi, the historian; Farabi, the philosopher; and Baihaki, the diarist. Ghazni and Lahore become the center of learning and culture.
His chief antagonist in northern India was Jaipal, the ruler of the Punjab. Exactly one thousand years ago the ancient city of Mathura was attacked by Mahmud, the ruler of Ghazni, who brought death and destruction of apocalyptic proportions to the beautiful birthplace of Lord Krishna. When Mahmud ascended the throne in 998 at the age of 27, he already showed remarkable administrative ability and statesmanship. The only difference is that Asian mamluks destroyed weak dynasties and founded new empires, while the janissaries remained domestic troops, only creating small revolts from time to time. During the first two years of his reign Mahmud consolidated his position in Ghazna.
See more Encyclopedia articles on:. The sultan finally succeeded in enticing the Indians to attack him. Like a ravenous pack, the Muslim army fell upon the citizens of Mathura, killing the men wantonly, separating the women from their children, and sorting them as if they were cattle. For nearly two hundred years 977—1163 the city was the dazzling capital of the , which encompassed much of what is today Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Eastern Iran and Rajasthan. Therefore, he abdicated in favour of his son, Anandpal, and then courageously got onto his own funeral pyre, and perished in the flames. Other times—such as in his campaigns against in 1022 and Kalinjar in 1023—Maḥmūd could not subdue those fortresses but did exact tribute from their rulers. Maḥmūd is said to have vowed to invade India once a year and, in fact, led about 17 such expeditions.
Maḥmūd returned home in 1026. A large number of Hindus lived in Ghazni, and they enjoyed religious freedom. Challenged several times by the Qarakhanid rulers, Mahmud repulsed all attempts against his territories. In August 2018, the city became of the site of the. This mosque was universally known by the name of the Celestial Bride. Nearly 10,000 temples were built in these fortresses, which the local residents told Mahmud had existed for 200,000 to 300,000 years.