Hence proving that low-balling works. The low-ball technique plays on the psychology of the human mind to manipulate a situation and draw benefit thus. Asch noted that 74% of subjects conformed to the majority at least once. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 398-413. First you make a request that will not be met and ask for 20%.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43 1 , 104-111. A group of students were randomly divided into two separate groups. Social and moral values initially held by the guards were quickly abandoned as they became immersed in their role. Arguments are produced when an individual gives a reason for thinking that a claim is true. The guards complied with the alleged demands of the prison while the prisoners complied with the perceived authority of the guards. Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment: The role of personality, situations and their interactions. The reasons why people agree to the change in the sales pitch and agree to a deal that has finally turned out to be far less profitable than was originally promised are many.
He is displeased but agrees to pay. Research has indicated that compliance techniques have become a major asset to numerous forms of , including Internet shopping sites. Customers often comply with ads by purchasing certain merchandise in the hopes of affiliating with a particular group. This gives it a serious turn. Compliance itself is a complicated concept that must be studied in depth so that its uses, implications and both its theoretical and experimental approaches may be better understood. The rate of conformity was reduced when one or more confederates provided the correct answer and when participants were allowed to write down their responses rather than verbally stating them. Based in the roots of social influence, compliance is studied through the use of many different approaches, contexts, and techniques.
This has caused controversy in a number of settings, and is still being looked at in depth in order to better understand how to use this social phenomenon in a prosocial manner. The low-ball was then introduced and they were told that they would have to be at the university at 7 am. This is an explicit action in which the person on the other side of the argument recognizes that the arguer seeks to gain compliance acceptance of their conclusion. Three days later, a second experimenter called the same people and actually requested help for this organization. The buyer is more likely to comply with this price change since he or she feels like a mental agreement to a contract has occurred. Customers who initially agree to pay the lower price are much more likely to continue with the sale at the higher price.
Because compliance techniques play at psychological needs they are frequently successful in selling a product; the use of fear is often less persuasive. According to Breckler, Olson, and Wiggins 2006, p. The technique involves a 4-step progression process, which is as follows. On the self-erasing nature of errors of prediction. Chapter 10: Norms and behavior Case Study: The low-ball technique In a series of studies by , it was demonstrated that greater compliance was obtained when participants who made an initial decision to perform a behavior were asked to perform a more costly behavior than when participants were informed about the full costs from the beginning.
Each prisoner received chains around their ankles and a stocking to simulate a shaved head. If he does not agree to the changed sale, these feelings could very well be replaced by being sad, which he is not ready to deal with. Advertisements and other forms of marketing typically play on the customers' need for informative and normative social influence. One such technique that is employed rather commonly is that of the low-ball technique, and it is known to garner excellent results. The prison was constructed by boarding up both sides of a corridor in the basement of Stanford's psychology department building. The findings demonstrated that people were more likely to comply with the requester when they believed the feature they shared was unplanned and rare. By initially estimating a car's price to be lower than actuality, car salesmen recognize that the customer is more likely to accept a higher price at a later time.
Meaning, an individual may comply with a request without truly believing the action s they are being asked to complete is acceptable. In experiment, 50 participants were placed in separate ambiguous situations to determine the extent to which they would conform. This is much higher than the 4% of a similar group of people who volunteered to help when approached directly. People are then motivated to reduce the dissonance, often in the easiest manner possible. Thus, when they have once agreed to a thing, they want to continue to stand by that decision. The target may or may not recognize that he or she is being urged to act in a particular way. Interestingly, none of them backed out and on the day of the experiment, 95% of the students from the second group showed up.
An unscrupulous sales technique where customers are initially quoted a lower price, then informed that there has been a mistake and the actual price is higher. Participants believed the experimenter was in control and held information he personally did not. This may lead to some or a lot of complaining and displeasure; however, if the low-ball has been used correctly, people tend to agree to the changed sale as well. However in the experimental condition pps were asked to be peer counsellors and then the request was downgraded to escort children to the zoo the target request. Defined as the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people real or imagined have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior; social influence is the driving force behind compliance.
When this is refused you make a more realistic request and ask for 10%. This technique is decidedly more effective than foot-in-the-door since foot-in-the-door utilizes a gradual escalation of requests. The effects of incidental similarity on compliance. In this case, the was largely perceived; however, the consequences were real. In control group 2 pps were approached and asked to spend 2 hours per week as a peer counsellor to young criminals for around 2 years; again most said no. Reciprocal concessions procedure for inducing compliance: The door-in-the-face technique. As such, the employment of compliance techniques may be utilized to manipulate an individual without their conscious recognition.
In their second study, the low-ball technique was effective whether the second request was related or unrelated to the first request. However, adding more members to a small group e. Additionally, authoritative figures appear to have a large impact on the actions of individuals. Most people agree to the higher price. Compliance refers to a response—specifically, a —made in reaction to a request. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 492—500. A week later, the same friend asks to borrow all of your psychology notes.