Judge to decide as to admissibility of evidence 137. This was challenged and the Supreme Court, while remanding the case to the High Court, held that where the private party had acted upon the representation of a public authority, it could be enforced against the authority on the grounds of equity in appropriate cases even though the representation did not result in a contract owing to the lack of proper form. Estoppel is an equitable as opposed to common law construct and its application is therefore discretionary. Indian Evidence Act, 1872 When one person has, by his declaration, act or omission, intentionally caused or permitted another person to believe a thing to be true and to act upon such belief, neither he nor his representative shall be allowed, in any suit or proceeding between himself and such person or his representative, to deny the truth of that thing. Exclusion of evidence against application of document of existing facts 95. Evolution of the doctrine of promissory estoppel Promissory estoppel is a relatively new development.
Primary oral evidence is the evidence of what a witness has personally seen or heard or gathered by his senses. He must not be allowed to prove his want to title. A promise made without is generally not enforceable. Burden of proof as to relationship in the cases of partners, landlord and tenant, principal and agent 110. Lord Cairns stated the doctrine in its earliest form in the following words in Hughes v. Proof when attesting witness denies the execution 72. Later in the year 1870 this task of codification of the rules of law of evidence was entrusted to sir James Fitz James Stephen.
The noun form estoppel is based on the estoupail, 'stopper, bung', a derivative of estouper. It is a principle evolved by equity to avoid injustice and though commonly named 'promissory estoppel', it is neither in the realm of contract nor in the realm of estoppel. On whom burden of proof lies 103. Estoppel on a point of law: Estoppel refers to a belief in a fact, and not in a proposition of law. The principle is also applied to Government promises, which is known as promissory estoppel. In the world of crime, some cases have achieved notoriety, e. Proof of documents by primary evidence 65.
Admission —by party to proceeding or his agent; by suit or in representative character; by party interested in subject-matter; by person from whom interest derived 19. Subsequently, only partial concessions and not full concessions were extended as announced. In 1835 the first attempt was made to codify the rules of evidence by passing the Act, 1835. The time of 6 months had elapsed; the owner sued the tenants for the breach of contract and also tried to evict the tenant. When the Government is able to show that due to the facts which have transpired subsequent to the promise being made, public interest would be prejudiced if the Government were required to carry out the promise made, the court would have to balance the public interest in the Government carrying out the promise made to a citizen which has induced the citizen to alter his position to his prejudice and the public interest likely to suffer if the Government were to carry out the promise, and determine which way the equity lies.
What is necessary is only that the promise should have altered his positions in reliance on the promise. All that is required is that the party asserting the estoppel must have acted upon the assurance given by him. Confession made after removal of impression caused by inducement, threat or promise, relevant 29. In criminal cases, previous good character relevant 54. According to Benthem, evidence is defined as any matter of fact, the effect, tendency or design of which is to produced in the mind, a persuasion affirmative or disaffirmative, of the existence of some other matter of fact.
Where a court finds that a party has done something warranting a form of estoppel, that party is said to be estopped from making certain related arguments or claiming certain related rights. Using, as evidence, of document production of which was refused on notice 165. Held that the judge is estopped. Clarification is given under Section 117 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 states that the acceptor of a bill of exchange may deny that the bill was drawn by the person by whom it indicates to have been drawn. Presumption as to due execution, etc. There is no doubt that the doctrine of estoppel is based upon equity and good conscience, is intended to secure justice between the parties by the promotion of honesty and good faith. Entries in books of account when relevant 35.
In another case, the wife was of Buddhist faith and the husband a Muslim. State of Haryana, cast a shadow on the Motilal case where it was held that the doctrine of promissory estoppel is not available against the exercise of executive functions of the State. It means this supporting instrument of our claim and also talks to how to proceed our claim before court of law. Illustration A intentionally and falsely leads B to believe that certain land belongs to A, and thereby induces B to buy and pay for it. The shopkeeper says that when B returns, he will welcome B as a customer—unless he sells all three of his radios first. Spencer Bower defines estoppel by representation of fact as follows: Where one person 'the representor' has made a representation of fact to another person 'the representee' in words or by acts or conduct, or being under a duty to the representee to speak or act by silence or inaction, with the intention actual or presumptive and with the result of inducing the representee on the faith of such representation to alter his position to his detriment, the representor, in any litigation which may afterwards take place between him and the representee, is estopped, as against the representee, from making, or attempting to establish by evidence, any averment substantially at variance with his former representation, if the representee at the proper time, and in proper manner, objects thereto. However, unlikely England where this rule is applied by the courts of equity as a rule of equity, it is a rule of evidence in India.
. . Estoppel in pais is dealt with in Ss. But the shopkeeper did not guarantee to hold one of the radios against the possibility of B's return nor did they agree a fixed price. Presumption as to powers-of-attorney 86. Clariti Eyewear, eyeglass frame maker Aspex sued competitor Clariti for patent infringement.
The test for in the English and Australian courts takes many factors into account, including the behavior, state of mind and circumstances of the parties. His Lordship's present view was that proprietary estoppel could not be prayed in aid to render enforceable an agreement declared by statute s. Questions tending to corroborate evidence of relevant fact admissible 157. There are different types of estoppels. It is the machinery by which substantive laws are set and kept in motion.
State, the rule of issue estoppel does not prohibit that evidence given at one trial against the accused cannot be given in another trial for another offence. Indirect or circumstantial evidence, on the other hand, does not prove the point in question directly, but establishes it only by inference. It cannot prevail against a plain and mandatory provision of law. The land afterwards becomes the property of A, and A seeks to set aside the sale on the ground that, at the time the sale, he had not title. The Supreme Court has rightly observed that the concept of detriment now is not merely monetary loss but whether it appears unjust. When oral admissions as to contents of documents are relevant 23.