The number of the Indians in the Governor General's Executive Council was raised to three in a Council of 8. The upper house was the Council of States consisting of 34 elected and 26 nominated members and tenure of five years. Conflict between Legislative Assembly and Council There were three instruments to resolve the deadlock between the two houses. The majority of members of both the Houses were chosen by direct election. The reserved subjects were administered by the Governor with the help of the members of the Executive Council who were nominated by him and who were not responsible to the legislature.
The reunion of Bengal in 1911 which canceled its partition into two provinces pleased the Hindus but antagonized the Muslims. Where, in this Report, we have had occasion to consider the position of India, we have made particular reference to it. The lower house or Central Legislative Assembly would consist of 144 members 41 nominated and 103 elected—52 General, 30 Muslims, 2 Sikhs, 20 Special and the upper house or Council of State would have 60 members 26 nominated and 34 elected—20 General, 10 Muslims, 3 Europeans and 1 Sikh. Indians, already anxious about the sincerity of British reforms in the act of 1919, were disheartened by the retention and expansion of the principle of separate electorates in the act. In the wake of the Report, a series of were set up from 1930 to 1932. The elected members included 52 General Members, 30 Muslims, 9 Europeans, 7 Landlords, 4 Representatives of India Community and 2 Sikhs. It made wide-ranging demands for greater self-government, equality of Indians with other races throughout the British Empire and Commonwealth in response to racial discrimination in South Africa and Canada , and greater opportunities for Indians in the armed forces of India.
Gandhi, who had formed a Satyagraha sabha earlier, called for a country-wide protest. Gandhi 1869—1948 and Jawaharlal Nehru 1889—1967 emerged as leaders of the Indian National Congress. The strained Anglo-Indian relationship in this period left India out of the Statute of Westminster, 1931, and without Dominion status. However, the later could enact a Bill without the assent of the legislature. Critical Assessment The above description makes it clear that the Government of India Act provided for partial transfer of Power to the electorate through the system of Dyarchy. On 20 August 1917, Montagu announced that the goal of British policy was to establish responsible government in India. Preamble The Government of India Act 1919 had a separate Preamble.
The Act embodied the reforms recommended by Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. Although the Mont-ford Report had declared that the separate electorate was a very serious hindrance to the development of the self-governing principles, yet separate electorate came to be significant feature of the Indian political life. The Act ended the dyarchy and direct elections were introduced for the first time. Thus, the preamble of this act suggested for a decentralized unitary form of government. On the home government in Britain front, the Government of India Act, 1919 made an important change the secretary of state was henceforth to be paid out of the British exchequer. In 1916 they concluded a Congress- League Scheme of Reforms, known as the Lucknow Pact. The Government of India Act, 1935 The Government of India Act of 1935 was originally passed in August 1935, and is said to have been the longest British Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time.
The cooperation collapsed when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk established a republic in Turkey and abolished the caliphate in 1923 and also due to increasing competition between the two communal groups for power in a future independent India. In the domain of provinces, Dyarchy was introduced but it was unsound in principle and unworkable in practice. The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them; excluding those items that were included as non-vote items. Out of 27 nominated members, 17 were officials and 10 were non-officials. Monroe Newfoundland , Kevin O'Higgins Vice President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. The electorate was expanded, and separate electorates Muslims elected their own representatives were kept in place, on Muslim insistence.
Upon arrival in Bombay on 3 February 1928, the Commission was met by protests. It provided for the establishment of a Public Service Commission. The committee submitted its report, and after the approval of Lord Minto and Lord Morley, the Act of 1909 was passed by the British Parliament. · Self-Government would be established gradually in India. The London Declaration of 1949 ended the British Commonwealth of Nations. The central subjects were Defence, Foreign Affairs, Currency, Railway and Telecommunication.
Others included a separate Indian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, in the same manner as the self governing dominions Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. He died in Berhampore, Bengal, on 4 March 1928. In 1886, he returned to Calcutta where he joined the City College as a lecturer in law and he also practised as a barrister. Gibbs and others, 14 vols. Warner, 1919 Speeches and Writings of Lord Sinha, with a Portrait and a Sketch Madras: G. So far, they were paid out of the Indian revenues.
He then toured India, met with Indian leaders, and together with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford drafted a Report for Indian Constitutional Reform in 1918, popularly called the Montagu-Chelmsford Report. However, in the case of the proposed Federation of India there was a further complication in incorporating such a set of rights, as the new entity would have included nominally sovereign and generally autocratic princely states. The budget was to be divided into two categories, votable and non-votable. But the financial powers of the central legislature were also very much limited. Governor General was authorised to make nominations from Anglo Indians, Indian Christians and Labour to the legislative assembly to safeguard their interests. Government of India Act 1919 Read About::-- , , ,.