The systems of stratification arise in response to two specific needs common to every human society. They assure that the parts of society form an integrated whole and thus, examine the ways in which the social stratification system is integrated with other parts of the society. Rewarding: Statuses which are differentiated, ranked and evaluated are allocated differential rewards in terms of good things in life. The assumptions of the conflict theorists basically are: 1. Education can lead to income attainment, but the benefits are not equally shared by racial and ethnic minorities, or by women. The holder of the land was called vassal; the multitudes who cultivated were the serfs and the people still lower to the serfs were slaves.
Those who belong to a particular group or stratum will have some awareness of common interest and common identity. The working class has developed new attitudes and aspirations which are not receptive to revolution. The individual of today thus finds himself confronted by situations in which he is uncertain of his own role and that of others. Infringe … ment upon civil rights, including even basic ones. It is important to note, at this point, that stratification also has negative consequences, or what Robert Merton calls dysfunction.
Indeed, the objectification of the church or the state is created from complex relations and interactions among the members of large, heterogeneous groups. It plays an important role in shaping institutions and practices in every society. Based on differing relations to the means of production, the German political philosopher 1818 —1883 predicted that the bourgeoisie would protect its economic interests by repressive laws. If we do so, nobody would like to bother to undergo expensive and lengthy engineering degree and training. In Europe society was divided into land lords and serfs.
Market situation determines income, and the life chances which depends on this. Stratification is a particular form of social inequality. For example, the Cullen family kept to themselves all of the time and did not mingle with those from outside their group. In one word, when individuals and groups are ranked, according to some commonly accepted basis of valuation in a hierarchy of status levels based upon the inequality of social positions, social stratification occurs. Interactionists would also be interested in the reasons why we spend money the way we do. Lets say that I am the son of an Bank Manager, I will have the chance, because my dad has the money, he will afford to send me lets say to Harvard, where I will get a degree witch in the other hand is highly valued on the job market and will lend me a good paying job with a good social status. The people who live in these houses most likely share similar levels of income and education.
The element of status is an important feature of social stratification. There is no society known which does not make some distinction between individuals by ranking them on some scale of value. But the term gender means much more than sex and more inclusive than sex. William Wilson argues that poor economic conditions are the main problems facing the truly disadvantaged. Second society must motivate such men once they are in these positions to perform the duties attached to them.
The most important criteria for understanding the process of differentiation is ranking. Women above the poverty level have extensive wardrobes. Gradually, people found new opportunities to increase their wealth and power. Theoretically, we can analyze social stratification from three major perspectives. In some they are relieved of labour while in others they are made to work hard. Wealth was passed from generation to generation through primogeniture, a law stating that all property would be inherited by the firstborn son.
In other words, one caste is further divided into different sub castes and these sub castes are hierarchically divided within a caste group. Following Weber, many sociologists use the term socioeconomic status: a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality -- education, occupation, income â¢ Socioeconomic status. This can be seen if we take into account two forms of stratification. Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis, Wilbert Moore are some of the prominent American sociologists who have developed functional theory of social stratification. The ancient Roman society was stratified into two strata: the Patricians and the Plebians.
However, physiological passage to adulthood does not necessarily coincide with the social transition of the individual from one category to the other. In the Hindu caste tradition, people were expected to work in the occupation of their caste and to enter into marriage according to their caste. Such hereditary classes and castes are used as a reference point for the ascription of status. Description of the American Classes. Their homes were foreclosed, their cars were repossessed, and their ability to afford healthcare was taken away. Like sex it is a definite and highly visible physiological fact.
The distinct vertical layers found in rock, called stratification, are a good way to visualize social structure. The proletariat has also changed â¢ Blue-collar occupations, lower prestige work involving mostly manual labor, have declined â¢ White-collar occupations, higher prestige work involving mostly mental activity, have expanded c. As the recession hit, they were often among the first to lose their jobs. Modern society places a great strain upon the transition from childhood to adulthood for four reasons. It must not be made a system of social segregation on the basis of race or religion or caste. The Aryan society was divided into four Varnas: the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Sudras, the ancient Greek society in to freemen and slaves, the ancient Chinese society into mandarins, merchants, Farmer and soldiers. Because of the complex structure of societies, processes like socialization, and the realities of economic systems, social standing is influenced by multiple factors—not merit alone.
The emphasis on ascription or achievement criteria depends very much on the whole package of social values. Gender and Sex: The term gender does not replace the term sex. Some are rated higher than the others in terms of rights and privileges. From a functionalist perspective then, two questions can be asked in looking at the Twilight Saga: 1 What is the function of the grouping among humans, vampires, and werewolves to society? One such functional prerequisite is effective role allocation and performance. In a of young adults in the U. The capitalist class has fragmented and grown in size, giving more people a stake in the system b. How does the structure of the social group you chose adhere to the concept of stratification? An individual cannot perform all the jobs nor can all the individuals be given the same job.