This article illustrates the development of hybridity rhetoric from biological to cultural discussions. The series of inclusions and exclusions on which a dominant culture is premised are deconstructed by the very entry of the formerly-excluded subjects into the mainstream discourse See ,. Types of Culture that can be Effected by Cultural Hybridization Cultural Erasure - refers to practices that have died out or are dying out. These are known as cultural hybrids. Cultural hybridization is a new form of culture created from combining two or more forms of culture. Kostas Myrsiades and Jerry McGuire. Defoe represents Crusoe as being the ultimate incarnation of an Englishman: industrious, self-determining, and ready to colonize natives.
What counts in the end is the attractiveness of a person and the quality of her or his character, degree of reliability, loyalty or trustworthiness. But while Nairn sees their colonialist grandiose rhetoric as disproportionate to the real decadent economic and political situation of late Victorian England, Bhabha goes as far as to see this imperial delirium forming gaps within the English text, gaps which are the signs of a discontinuous history, an estrangement of the English book. Clearly there are going to be winners and losers in different cases. Postmodernists thus see globalization as a positive phenomenon because it has created a new class of global consumers, in both the developed and the developing world, with a greater range of choice from which they can construct a hybridised global identity. Transformationlists and postmodernists also see the global media as beneficial because it is primarily responsible for diffusing different cultural styles around the world and creating new global hybrid styles in fashion, food, music, consumption and lifestyle. This article explains the history of hybridity and its major theoretical discussion amongst the discourses of race, , , and , and. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.
They are also, again by an externally created and imposed necessity rather than by a deliberate choice of their residents, cast in the position of research establishments and schools of civic responsibility and the difficult art of human cohabitation under novel conditions of irreducible cultural diversity and persistent existential uncertainty. Mimesis and Alterity: A Particular History of the Senses. Also, many countries have proved more than capable of resisting American force — mostly in the Middle East. This presumes a loss of all characteristics which make the newcomers different. The groups do not necessarily give up their own culture, but participate in various ways in each other's lives. Cultural Hybridity Hunter Whalen What is cultural hybridization? Author: Abdennebi Ben Beya, c.
The various types of assimilation include : language, customs, ideas and values, name change, religious affiliation. Revision notes on globalisation… If you like this sort of thing and want some more context on globalisation, then you might like these , specifically designed for A-level sociology. It is argued that in the global, postmodern world, such cultural diversity and pluralism will become the norm. Cuba, before and after the revolution, exemplifies this process. They might also be useful to students studying other A-level or first year degree subjects such as politics, history, economics or business, where globalisation is on the syllabus.
So it is difficult to say that it is either good or bad. Bhabha analyses the slippages in colonial political discourse, and reveals that the janus-faced attitudes towards the colonized lead to the production of a mimicry that presents itself more in the form of a menace and rupture rather than than a resemblance and consolidation. Hybridity, Bhabha argues, subverts the narratives of colonial power and dominant cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. The simple presence of the colonized Other within the textual structure is enough evidence of the ambivalence of the colonial text, an ambivalence that destabilizes its claim for absolute authority or unquestionable authenticity.
This theoretical position argues that globalization should be understood as a complex set of interconnecting relationships through which power, for the most part, is exercised indirectly. Transformationalists argue that the flow of culture is not one way, from the west to the developing world; it is a two-way exchange in which Western culture is also influenced, changed and enriched by cultures in the developing world. Cultural Retention - refers to practices that have survived even when most other forms and symbols of culture are no longer evident. The term originates from and was subsequently employed in linguistics and in racial theory in the nineteenth century. Ulrich Beck 1992 argues that a fundamental feature of globalization is the development of a global risk consciousness, which emerges due to shared global problems which threaten people in multiple countries — examples include the threat of terrorism, international nuclear war, the threat of global pandemics, the rise of organised crime funded primarily through international drug trafficking, and the threat of planetary melt-down due to global warming. The spread of global media has lead to diverse uses — e.
They suggest that the globalization process can be reversed, especially where it is negative or, at the very least, that it can be controlled. Cultural Renewal - occurs when a group goes through a conscious rejuvenation process and returns to some elements of its culture, which it believes have been ignored or suppressed. They mark the disturbance of its authoritative representations by the uncanny forces of race, sexuality, violence, cultural and even climatic differences which emerge in the colonial discourse as the mixed and split texts of hybridity. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983. It is meant to foreclose the diverse forms of purity encompassed within theories. Colonial Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race.
A person can become enculturated through processes of acculturation and assimilation, which have been policies tried by the various European colonizers in the Caribbean. The dominant culture is contaminated by the linguistic and racial differences of the native self. Sufficiently many individual specimens of diasporas sharing the city space tend however to be drawn out of their anonymity and transferred to the realm of personal, face-to-face acquaintances, for the mental walls separating abstract categories to be pierced and for the outcomes of habitual wholesale stereotyping to be gradually, yet steadily undermined. Its contemporary uses are scattered across numerous academic disciplines and is salient in. It encourages people around the world to fund projects. Nine pages of summary notes covering the following aspects of globalisation: — Basic definitions and an overview of cultural, economic and political globalisation — Three theories of globalisation — hyper-globalism, pessimism and transformationalism.
Besides Free Trade, Fair Trade is expanding, and there is also illegal trade — in drugs for example. Globalisaion is characterised by new political formations, not just the spread of democracy or the spread of American dominance. New sporting formations the world over are good examples of cultural hybridity 5. Hybridity refers in its most basic sense to mixture. Dance and Society in Eastern Africa, 1890-1970: the Beni ngoma.
On the downside, the constant media focus on such global problems has led to a widespread culture of fear and increasing anxiety across the globe, which has arguably contributed to things such as Paranoid Parenting and Brexit, but on the plus side, new global international movements and agencies have emerged through which people come together across borders to tackle such problems. Supporting Evidence for The Transformationalist View of Globalisation 1. Also governments the world over regulate international companies in different ways — Pollution laws, tax law, minimum wages, health and safety. If the English book is read as a production of hybridity, then it no longer simply commands authority. See , the His analysis, which is largely based on the Lacanian conceptualization of mimicry as camouflage focuses on colonial ambivalence. Kassim suggests that social networks broke down a psychological barrier of fear by helping people to connect and unite against repressive leaders, providing a catalyst for positive change.