The Code of Hammurabi is an ancient text from Ancient Mesopotamia and is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. She may then marry the man of her heart. This listing consisted of both the laws as well as the associated punishments. Then she may marry the man of her heart. It also stressed eye for an eye, or the belief that a crime deserved an equal punishment. If anyone be guilty of incest with his mother after his father, both shall be burned. Whatever she leaves shall belong to her children.
If anyone steals a shadduf used to draw water from the river or canal or a plow, he shall pay three shekels in money. If anyone hire an ox, and put out its eye, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value. When she has brought up her children, a portion of all that is given to the children, equal as that of one son, shall be given to her. If the witnesses be not at hand, then shall the judge set a limit, at the expiration of six months. If the animal be killed in the stable by God an accident , or if a lion kill it, the herdsman shall declare his innocence before God, and the accident in the stable. If a man be taken prisoner in war and there be no sustenance in his house and his wife go to another house and bear children; and if later her husband return and come to his home: then this wife shall return to her husband, but the children follow their father. He distributed them to all the cities in his kingdom.
The code contained 282 written laws in 12 tablets. The Ancient Babylonian society abided by the Code of Hammurabi while the Ancient Romans abided by The Twelve Tables. If he hires an ass for threshing, the hire is twenty ka of corn. About 100 of these laws concern matters of property and commerce, including , interest and collateral. In fact its very existence created the basis for the justice system we have come to rely on today. If any one strikes the body of a man higher in rank than he, he shall receive sixty blows with an ox-whip in public. What would be required to do so? So, we mustn't act as if somehow Moses got these from Hammurabi or something like that, because while Hammurabi does predate Moses by centuries, the reality is that there are differences as well.
Religion was central to everyday life in Babylonia. Divorce often carried a fee and sometimes required the husband to return the dowry. If the agent accept money from the merchant, but have a quarrel with the merchant denying the receipt , then shall the merchant swear before God and witnesses that he has given this money to the agent, and the agent shall pay him three times the sum. If a man give his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed therefor, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers. In this exercise students will be hypothesizing what the meaning of the stele might be. Students will participate in a simulation in 3—5 groups. If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offers her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release.
Hammurabi is best known for his code of law, known simply as Hammurabi's Code, which outlines the basic philosophy of Babylonian criminal justice. If anyone steals a water-wheel from the field, he shall pay five shekels in money to its owner. Think about large public objects with which students might be familiar, such as the statue of Lincoln at his memorial. If anyone open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss. If a man takes a woman to be his wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him. Property in the form of land and houses -- or even wives and children -- could serve as collateral, too. If a man is taken prisoner in war, and there is sustenance in his house, but his wife leave house and court, and go to another house: because this wife did not keep her court, and went to another house, she shall be judicially condemned and thrown into the water.
If he do not receive a fixed rental for his field, but lets it on half or third shares of the harvest, the grain on the field shall be divided proportionately between the tiller and the owner. In their presentations to the class, students should point to the specific precepts from which they derived their conclusions. If any one store corn for safe keeping in another person's house, and any harm happen to the corn in storage, or if the owner of the house open the granary and take some of the corn, or if especially he deny that the corn was stored in his house: then the owner of the corn shall claim his corn before God on oath , and the owner of the house shall pay its owner for all of the corn that he took. If the cultivator does not plant corn or sesame in the field, the debtor's contract is not weakened. Hammurabi, King of Babylon reunited Mesopotamia and instituted the Code of Hammurabi, a comprehensive set of laws addressing nearly all aspects of both civil and criminal offenses.
Her position of inheritance belongs to her brothers. If a man wishes to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children: then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct of field, garden, and property, so that she can rear her children. These laws were thought to have given justice to the people of that period. The code resembled the current constitution. Tell the class we have quite a bit of information about this ancient stele, which you will share with them later, but, for now, you want them to consider the object itself. This code was considered important as the were written on something for the first time. If any one steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.
If a man give to one of his sons whom he prefers a field, garden, and house, and a deed therefor: if later the father die, and the brothers divide the estate, then they shall first give him the present of his father, and he shall accept it; and the rest of the paternal property shall they divide. Not only that, but were a child to strike a father, the child's hands were cut off. In Uruk it is King Gilgamesh who rules, while in Babylon it is King Hammurabi; they are the ones who govern the laws that are included… 1491 Words 6 Pages Code of Hammurabi The United States Constitution Everything and everyone has a history. Interest for the money, as much as he has received, he shall give a note therefor, and on the day, when they settle, pay to the merchant. If the free-born woman had no gift she shall take all that her husband and she had earned and divide it into two parts; and the master of the slave shall take one-half and she shall take the other for her children. Ask students to look carefully at the stele. Although these significant texts have been written centuries apart, they have quite a few similarities and differences.
If any one place his property with another for safe keeping, and there, either through thieves or robbers, his property and the property of the other man be lost, the owner of the house, through whose neglect the loss took place, shall compensate the owner for all that was given to him in charge. If he strikes the maid-servant of a man, and she loses her child, he shall pay two shekels in money. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death. The field, garden, and house return to their owners. It teaches us about Mesopotamian society like class divisions, political and economic factors as well as it is the basis of our modern day legal code. Designed for high school and college students, it may also be appropriate for some middle school students.
If a judge try a case, reach a decision, and present his judgment in writing; if later error shall appear in his decision, and it be through his own fault, then he shall pay twelve times the fine set by him in the case, and he shall be publicly removed from the judge's bench, and never again shall he sit there to render judgement. If any one buy the cattle or sheep which the king has given to chieftains from him, he loses his money. If this maid-servant dies, he shall pay one-third of a mina. His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom. If a shepherd, without the permission of the owner of the field, and without the knowledge of the owner of the sheep, lets the sheep into a field to graze, then the owner of the field shall harvest his crop, and the shepherd, who had pastured his flock there without permission of the owner of the field, shall pay to the owner twenty gur of corn for every ten gan. It is more implicated than just saying severe crimes receive increasingly severe punishments. If he do not till the field, but let it lie fallow, he shall give grain like his neighbor's to the owner of the field, and the field which he let lie fallow he must plow and sow and return to its owner.