Towards the end of the , the countries of southern India had developed extensive maritime and commercial activity. It is such a brilliant iconographic invention that it comes as close to being a summation of the genius of the Indian people as any single icon can. Sculptures of Shiva dancing survive from at least as early as the fifth century, but it was under the rule of the great Chola dynasty of southern India 880-279 that the world-famous iconographic type evolved. With the conflict between Pallavas and Pandyas, Vijayalaya occupied Tanjore and made his capital. A number of villages constituted a larger entity known as a Kurram, Nadu, or Kottram,, depending on the area. Due to his parentage, Kulothunga inherited both the lands of the Chola and those of the Eastern Chalukyas. Two names stand out prominently from among those Chola kings known to have existed, who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan.
However both Kanchipuram and Madurai were considered to be regional capitals, in which occasional courts were held. These mercenaries operated anything that they could capture and composed of multi-national-ethnic corps. Writing half a century later, the geographer gives more detail about the Chola country, its port and its inland cities. The pilgrim , who spent several months in during 639—640 writes about the 'kingdom of Culi-ya', in an apparent reference to the Telugu Chodas. Election to the executive body and other committees of the ur and sabha appears to have been conducted by draw of lots from among those who were eligible. There have also been important individuals in the field of politics. However, this is more of a direction to the Saivite community by its religious heads than any kind of dictat by a Chola emperor.
A rich literature depicts the life and work of those people, yet without a hint of time periods. Nedumudikilli seems to have been the successor of Karikala, whose capital town was set to fire by the sea pirates. These structures underwent constant change and refinement throughout the Chola period. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. What is certain is that when the power of the Cholas fell to its lowest ebb and that of the Pandyas and Pallavas rose to the north and south of them, this dynasty was compelled to seek refuge and patronage under their more successful rivals. There were gigantic trade guilds that traded with Java and Sumatra. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries.
These differences in the custom probably caused animosity to them amongst their subject and were probably the reason for the uniform adverse reports by the Tamil historians and authors who wrote following their demise. Cholas and Chalukyas, the other major power of that time were continuously in conflict over the control of the Vengi kingdom and this conflict eventually exhausted both the empires and brought down their decline. Local government Every village was a self-governing unit. Sastri was the land revenue. Siva in the form of Ardhanarisvara Its remarkable and sets the Chola period apart. But, they were employed by the Trade-guilds rather than the Empire, giving the Traders an edge in the seas. The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansion of the Chola Empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon islands and naval raids on present-day Indonesia.
More than 90 percent of the population speak. Early Cholas Main article: The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Revenue Administration: A well-organised department of land revenue, known as the puravu-varitinaik — katam was in existence. Many of the surviving examples of the found today throughout the Southeast Asia owe much to the legacy of the Cholas. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganga and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala.
However when Virarajendra died in 1070 C. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the celebrated expedition to the which undertook and by the overthrow after an unprecedented naval war of the maritime empire of , as well as by the repeated embassies to China. Wilstach Fund, the John D. What Is India Publishers P Ltd. In 1257 the Pandyan conquered the Chola country and after a long rule the Chola Dynasty collapsed in 1279. The king gave verbal orders tiruvakya-kelvi which were drafted by the private secretary and confirmed by the Olainayamak Chief Secretary and a Perundaram before its despatch by the Vidaiyadhikari despatch clerk. Cholas never managed to overwhelm the Kalyani kingdom and the frontier remained at the Tungabhadra River.
The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram at Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola, was intended to excel its predecessor. The system of government was a hereditary monarchy and the coronation of the king was an impressive ceremony. See Nilakanta Sastri, 1955, 173. Mural depicting Raja and his guru Karuvuruvar found in the Brihadeesvara temple, Tamil Nadu, 11th century. Probably equivalent to modern day. He built the new capital near the mouth of the Kaveri and called it Gangaikondacholapuram the city of the Chola conqueror of the Ganga.
However, there was little in common between the primitive and somewhat tribal chieftaincy of the earlier time, and the almost royalty— Rajaraja Chola—and his successors with its numerous palaces, and the pomp and circumstance associated with the royal court. His son Rajendra imitated this effort by building the temple at his new capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram. There is no evidence that Rajendra was followed immediately by another Chola prince. The Saints of the Cauvery Delta. Mandalathipathy - The lord of Mandalam Roughly equivalent to or Composed of 40-50 Ships of various roles.