Characteristics of the mountain soil depending on the climate of the region can be divided into two broad groups: 1 Loamy Podzols, and 2 High Altitude Soils. The soil is composed of less than 30 percent clay, slickensides or wedge-shaped peds and cracks that open and close periodically. They are very deep and constitute some of the most fertile tracts of the country. The theory of the terrestrial-plant origin of chernozems F. These mainly contain which gives them characteristic pink or red color. Thus, the presence of phosphates and nitrates make them fertile soils wherever moisture is available. These accounts were generally directed towards the assessment of differential soil fertility and land revenue collection, but did not attempt classification of soil types in the country.
Generally, it is the north facing slopes which support soil cover; the southern slopes being too precipitous and exposed to denudation to be covered with soil. These areas are flooded almost every year. These soils occupy about 2. Central Arid Zone Research Institute has further recommended the cultivation of many indigenous and exotic varieties of trees, grasses and salt tolerant species which grow in desert conditions. Only shallow rooted crops are grown in such soil, e.
They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. Humus is formed by the decomposing action of soil microorganisms e. In arid area, rainfall is very poor up to 62. Because of their high fertility and retentivity of moisture, the black soils are widely used for producing several important crops. This article is part of our in the Geography section.
This induces the soil fertility. A new layer of alluvium is deposited by river flood almost every year. As evaporation is in excess of rainfall, the soil has a high salt content and saline layer forms a hard crust. In the drier parts of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, there are salt-impregnated or alkaline soils occupying 68,000 sq km of area. Most of the alluvial soils are derived from the sediments deposited by rivers as in the Indo-Gangetic plain although some alluvial soils in the coastal areas have been formed by the sea waves. Reader Interactions Shashank and Ravi: The forest soils vary in structure and texture depending on the mountain environment where they are formed.
In general these soils are rich in iron, lime, calcium, potash, aluminum and magnesium carbonates but poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. It is generally a modified type of loess , unstratified soil deposit of varying thickness, usually yellowish and composed of fine-grained angular mineral particles mixed with clay. Eastern and Western Ghats ,Karnataka and some parts of orissa. The occurrence of this soil in the west deccan where the rainfall is about 100 cm and the number of rainy days more than 50, is considered by him to be an exception. In addition to the humus, the plant nutritional elements, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and iron, are fixed in the soil in the form of complex organomineral compounds, which form as a result of the interaction of humic acids with the ash elements of plant remains and the mineral part of the soil. Large varieties of vegetables and fruits are also successfully grown on the black soils. Alluvial soils are suitable for cultivation of wheat, rice, cotton, maize, millet, oils, sugarcane, groundnut, vegetables and jute.
It also contains 10 per cent of alumina, 9-10 per cent of iron oxide and 6-8 percent of lime and magnesium carbonates. Apparently, it is derived by the decomposition of trap rocks and its blackish colour is due to presence of superficial iron in the rocks. Other crops suited to black soils are wheat, millet, gram, pea, etc. Saline and Alkaline Soils: These soils are found in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The black colour of these soils has been attributed by some scientists to the presence of a small proportion of titaniferous magnetite or even to iron and black constituents of the parent rock.
It is well- developed in southern Maharashtra, and parts of Orissa, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar, Assam and Meghalaya. By the time they reach the Punjab their moisture is largely spent. It has adequate amount of phosphoric acid, potash and lime. The black soil is very retentive of moisture. Blocked by the Himalayas, the Bay of Bengal branch of the monsoon is diverted westward up the Gangetic Plain, reaching Punjab only in the first week of July. Alluvial soil is highly fertile and is light grey in colour.
Black soils are highly retentive of moisture, extremely compact and tenacious when wet, considerably contracted developing deep wide cracks on drying and self-ploughing. Click the link for more information. It is the most important type of soil found in the country as it covers about 40% of the total land. Generally, in the upland regions, the black soil has low fertility, while in the valleys or lowlands; this soil is darker, deeper and very fertile. The desert soils consist of aeolian sand 90 to 95 per cent and clay 5 to 10 per cent. The soil is utilised in the cultivation of jowar, rice, wheat, gram and cotton. The soil was either 'Urvara' i.
The soils of Peninsular India are those which have been formed by the deomposition of rocks in situ, i. In Brahmaputra and Ganga valleys and Assam plains, the great Khadar is low in lime, K and Mg contents. Forest and Mountain Soils 6. The red soils develop from metamorphic sediments of granite gneisses and schists. The texture of these soils varies from sand to clay, the majority being loams.