Their center of power was the Valley of Mexico. The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State, 1492-1867. Religion Main article: Aztec religion was organized around the practice of calendar rituals dedicated to a pantheon of different deities. As early as the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, dominated all other cities and had reached the height of its power and magnificence. The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs. Although the form of government is often referred to as an empire, in fact most areas within the empire were organized as city-states, known as in Nahuatl. The Aztecs wanted to claim descent from the Toltecs.
New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1956. Maxtla tried and failed to assassinate Netzahualcoyotl, the tlatoani of Texcoco. Slaves were the lowest class of society in the Aztec community. That is why we are claiming our rights as natives, as descendants of natives, as descendants of generations of survivors of the attempted annihilation of our collective indigenous roots. He succeeded to the rulership after the death of Ahuitzotl.
Among the nobles, marriage alliances were often used as a political strategy with lesser nobles marrying daughters from more prestigious lineages whose status was then inherited by their children. Mythology and worldview Aztec cosmological drawing with the god Xiuhtecuhtli, the lord of fire in the center and the four corners of the cosmos marked by four trees with associated birds, deities and calendar names, and each direction marked by a dismembered limb of the god Tezcatlipoca. When the city of Tenochtitlan became a major urban center, water was supplied to the city through from springs on the banks of the lake, and they organized a system that collected human waste for use as fertilizer. Click on image to enlarge Waterways The Aztecs were very good engineers so we had to dedicate a little space here to the transport of water. Even if some codices may have been produced after the conquest, there is good reason to think that they may have been copied from pre-Columbian originals by scribes. Pic 4: From the Lienzo de Tlaxcala Click on image to enlarge Of course, canoes were also used for war. Mexico's ancient civilizations have continued to be the focus of major scholarly investigations by Mexican and international scholars.
After the siege and complete destruction of the Aztec capital, he was captured on 13 August 1521, and marked the start of Spanish hegemony in central Mexico. The was quite simple and perhaps not so much different from how many modern day cultures function. Today, in Mexico, there are about one million descendants of the ancient Aztec, living and working. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures. Aztec Image of Self and Society. Disease Was The Demise The Aztec people where brilliant in war and military strategy however there biggest downfall was succumbing to disease.
Many men also wore a cape or cloak of some type called a tilmatli, and the type of tilmatli worn indicated social status. Here are some remaining stone foundations at one site in Mexico City. They had no rights, but were allowed to buy back their own freedom and become commoners. An amazing amount of work goes into these. Triple Alliance and Aztec Empire See also: The was ruled by indirect means. Around the sacred precinct were the royal palaces built by the tlatoanis.
This worksheet can be edited by Premium members using the free Google Slides online software. . Sometimes the Aztecs would also kill a dog and bury or cremate it with the person so that it could guide them on their journey through the afterlife. Final Aztec rulers and the Spanish conquest The meeting of and , with his cultural translator , 8 November 1519, as depicted in the Xocoyotzin is known to world history as the Aztec ruler when the Spanish invaders and their indigenous allies began their conquest of the empire in a two-year-long campaign 1519—1521. Nevertheless, the expansion of the empire was accomplished through military control of frontier zones, in strategic provinces where a much more direct approach to conquest and control was taken.
Indigenous governors were in charge of the colonial political organization of the Indians. México City: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México. Colonial period, 1521—1821 , showing the abuse of a Nahua by a Spanish was built on the ruins of Tenochtitlan, gradually replacing and covering the lake, the island and the architecture of Aztec Tenochtitlan. Codex Mendoza Click on image to enlarge Using the feet as transport The Aztecs were no strangers to walking. Unsurprisingly, there is evidence that Mexico was already suffering from a demographic crisis before the Spanish arrived. Aztec Dress Code Aztecs had a pretty basic.
But its most fundamental significance as a natural force is symbolized by the sculpture of a coiled plumed serpent rising from a base whose underside is carved with the symbols of the earth deity and Tlaloc. Several pages from the list tributary towns along with the goods they supplied, which included not only luxuries such as feathers, adorned suits, and beads, but more practical goods such as cloth, firewood, and food. The temple has been excavated in the center of Mexico City and the rich dedicatory offerings are displayed in the Museum of the Templo Mayor. Those nobles pledged loyalty to the Spanish crown and converted, at least nominally, to Christianity, and in return were recognized as nobles by the Spanish crown. Closely entwined with Aztec religion was the calendar, on which the elaborate round of rituals and ceremonies that occupied the priests was based. The accession of a new ruler in the dominant city state was often an occasion for subjected cities to rebel by refusing to pay tribute.