The German lands needed up to next two hundred years period in order to recover themselves from the effects of the war, which was one of the bloodiest in the European history. Ultimately, 176 plenipotentiaries representing 196 rulers attended the peace negotiations. The tendency was toward fully sovereign independent states. The crucial disputes between the states engaged in the war became solved by the Peace Treaty of Westphalia 1648 , but the war between France and the Habsburg Spain was finished only in 1659 by the Treaty of the Pyrenees. A special postal system addressed letters between the envoys and their principals, and it took ten days or more to send a communication from Münster to Paris or Vienna, and twenty days or more to Stockholm or Madrid.
The provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia concerned territorial changes, religious relations, and political arrangements in the empire. Sweden and France as guarantors of the peace acquired the right of interference in the affairs of the empire, and Sweden also gained a voice in its councils as a member of the Diet. Sweden gained territory and a payment in cash, Brandenburg and Bavaria made gains too, and France acquired most of Alsace-Lorraine. Pope Innocent X denounced a number of the religious provisions and the papacy never formally lifted its condemnation. The Thirty Years War: The Holy Roman Empire and Europe, 1618—48. Sweden was represented by John Oxenstierna, son of the chancellor of that name, and by Johan Adler Salvius, who had previously worked for Sweden at Hamburg.
The war continued during the deliberations. The Peace of Westphalia was crucial in German and international history. After the Peace of Westphalia,Europe was at it again with the war of the League of Augsburg by 1688,which saw opposing coalitions of major and minor European powers ranged against each other,and several other such general European wars within less than a century. It is sometimes said, especially by some political theorists in the U. The territorial clauses privileged Sweden, France, and their allies. A concise introduction to the conflict; a good place to start.
They relied on the emperor and were happy to seek his protection, particularly now that he could not be a predator. The Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary. This agreement put an end to the Thirty Years' War. The authority of the Roman emperor was reduced drastically but not totally banished as the German protestant rulers preferred a weak Roman empire rather than a Swedish or French rule. Not surprisingly, France came out of the war in a far better position than any of the other participants.
Of course, that is not to say there were no innovations —the creation of an eighth electorate was new, the first extension of the number of imperial electors since 1356 —but established custom and legal rights were usually preferred. It was also the first pan-European effort to achieve a fair resolution for numerous conflicts and a lasting peace, rather than merely penalizing the defeated side. However, in the seventeenth century, religious and political hostilities encompassed all of Europe in an interlinking web of nations, extending from Russia to England and from Sweden to Spain. Pignerol, Breisach, Upper and Lower Alsace including 10 imperial cities but not Strasbourg were acquired by France also. London and New York: Routledge, 1997. Thus, with the Peace of Westphalia, the European leaders gained their own lasting national army.
The Treaty is one of the most important documents in the history of Europe with details upon returning the occupied territories, information on wrong-doing events during the war, trade regulation after the war or the manner in which the armies would be disbanded and prisoners of war set free. Maximilian of Bavaria continued to hold his electoral title and the Upper Palatinate. Reference work that offers short explanations and related literature on terms, persons, places, and so on relative to the Peace of Westphalia. The conditions of the compact were not in accord with Richelieu's design to break up the imperial power, however, and the war continued despite offers of mediation from the pope and the king of Denmark. But did the Catholic Church in fact lose out? In addition, matters were complicated by the individual ambitions of various German princes and separate negotiations between the Spanish and the Dutch.
In fact, the war only really came to an end at that time because of France's inability to carry it on. By makingGermany take responsibility they automatically destroyed all chanceof world peace. Moreover, many of the smaller states were too small to exploit the rights and liberties they had been granted; they preferred the security of the. Sweden wanted territorial and financial compensation while France, under the cardinals Richelieu to 1642, Mazarin thereafter , envisaged something altogether more ambitious that involved a considerable reduction in both Spanish and Austrian power. The Swedes, the Danes, the Poles, the Russians, the Dutch and the Swiss were all dragged in or dived in. A reputable coin dealer will be able to assist with a positive identification and give a more accurate valuation. Laying on the ground looking up on the front drivers side you should see a little box with your speedometer cable and a group 4 in my case coming … out it.
Therefore Osnabrück hoped for a great relief becoming neutralised and demilitarised. The Peace of confirmed the 1555 , which had granted religious tolerance in the empire and which had been by the Holy Roman emperor in his 1629. Sweden obtained western with the city of , the port of , the archbishopric of , and the bishopric of Verden. Accordingly, Mazarin decided to build up as a counterweight to Swedish power, and in February 1647 the Swedish envoys were persuaded to agree to a partition of with the elector. Mazarin himself was clearly disappointed with the peace; he wanted the war to continue. Since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue, its peace negotiations with the Empire, including the allies of both sides, took place in Osnabrück.